stargazing new york

Posted on

- posted in Beginners Forum (No astrophotography): Ill be in New York City next week for business.Ive never seen the northern skies since taking up astronomy, and Id love to see the big dipper, andromeda etc.Ill be in NYC the entire trip: I wont be able to get away from the big city lights.Is it worth taking my 8x42 fujinons with me? Talks begin at 7.30pm, while stargazing begins at 8.15pm (weather permitting). By Bee-Shyuan Chang February 10, 2013 12:36 pm February 10, 2013 12:36 pm. Keep an eye on their site to see when the next one might be happening.22806 Northern Blvd, Little Neck, alleypond.com, Hunter’s Point South Park (and nearby Gantry Plaza State Park) look out across the East River toward Midtown Manhattan. Forget the Postal Service (especially after it announced that it would eliminate Saturday service later this year): … Claim: “State Forces Citizens to Pay for ‘Stargazing Permit’ to View Night Sky in Public Parks” If you’re planning a summer trip to the Hamptons or an escape to Montauk, these places are worth visiting one the sun sets. United States Forums; Europe Forums; Canada Forums; Asia Forums; Central America Forums; Africa Forums; … I can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the end of all emails. What better stargazing view than one with the Manhattan skyline in it? Your localized Astronomy weather forecast, from AccuWeather, provides you with the tailored weather forecast that you need to plan your day's activities Browse by destination. This extortion comes in the form of a $35.00 “Stargazing Permit.” If you are from out of state and wish to gaze upon the night sky from one of these locations that fee jumps to $60. Stargazing Go starry eyed on the North York Moors Coast. Stargazing: New York Fashion Week Days 2 and 3. Whether you just want to see the Moon or perhaps spot Saturn’s rings, we’ve rounded up the best places to try and do so. Stargazing at the Highline - New York City Forum. Ben Gabbe/Getty Images The front row at the Rag & Bone show from left: Grace Coddington, Hamish Bowles and Drew Barrymore. There are a lot of "online companies" that pretend to be a local florist, hurting both you and small businesses like ours. You’ll often find the Amateur Astronomers Association set up to help you spot some of the wonders in the night sky. There’s no shortage of amazing things to do in Brooklyn during the day, and there’s plenty of nightlife to entertain you too. The Bronx, like the other boroughs, suffers from light pollution – but a few green spaces provide enough of an enclave to see the night sky. Stargazing at the High Line takes place every Tuesday, beginning at dusk, between Tuesday, April 2, and Tuesday, October 29. This final borough has a surprisingly large spot where stargazing is a top activity. From House Beautiful. The family-friendly astronomy nights are free and open to members of the public over the age of ten. But you might be surprised by the Big Apple's stargazing options. Posted on September 16, 2019 September 23, 2019. Jan Benzel is an editor at The Times who is being reassigned to Paris. Free—no RSVP needed. Space is limited so advance registration is recommended. New York Requires Citizens to Obtain ‘Stargazing Permit’ To Admire the Stars in Public Parks Red State ^ | January 27, 2020 | by Jeff Charles Posted on 01/28/2020 1:51:21 PM PST by Red Badger. Check their site for the next upcoming dates.Payson Ave. &, Seaman Ave, New York, nycgovparks.org. Just 45 minutes from downtown Manhattan is a gorgeous cottage situated on the water that's perfect for a serene staycation. Visitors are invited to explore the night sky with a series of free astronomy nights at Intrepid ©Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum You’ll definitely have limited sky views and a lot of light pollution, but it’s a good enough spot that even the AAA hosts events there from time to time.East 86th Street &, East End Ave, New York, carlschurzparknyc.org, Also known as Pupin Hall, Pupin Physics Laboratories is the home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University. Near the village of Bemus Point in the southeastern corner of the state, stargazers can visit Long Point State Park to enjoy excellent nighttime sky conditions. Don’t forget Staten Island! The museum is housed in the former Intrepid aircraft carrier, which served in WWII and the Vietnam War, and as a NASA recovery vessel in the 1960s. The further you’re willing to travel away from the city, the better your chances of seeing the Milky Way will be. New York State recently passed a law requiring citizens to obtain a permit if they wish … star gazing from New York city? Obviously, you don’t want to tell the park ranger you don’t need a permit because you’re UFO spotting, not stargazing. Pupin Hall is in Morningside Heights, west of Harlem, and easily reached by the 1 train. 2-min read. Outside of work, Shreenivas Shah enjoys hiking, traveling, and stargazing. It’s impossible to go stargazing in a big city. Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum is located on Pier 86 in Midtown, Manhattan. There aren’t any recurring astronomy events, but if any do get scheduled, you’ll see them on the NYC Parks website for Hunter’s Point South Park.Center Blvd, Long Island City, nycgovparks.org. For more information, see here. Head north and you’ll find dark skies! The biggest of the boroughs, Queens has a few good stargazing spots if you’re visiting the area. Peer through high-powered telescopes provided by the knowledgeable members of the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York to see rare celestial sights. This massive space is the final resting place of over 310,000 people – but every so often, a few extra souls stay after dark to take advantage of the area’s better night sky quality than the surrounding area. Best Times of Year to Go Stargazing in New York City. The Best Places to Go Stargazing in New York City. Both involve looking up at the night sky, which seems to be the logical issue here. Imagine this: You’re out with your family in one of the parks in New York state where you can actually see the stars when it gets dark. Stargazing Do you ever ponder your place in the cosmos? But it is possible to see at least a few of the brightest objects in the sky. Let us know in the comments! thehighline.org, One last great option for stargazing in Manhattan is to participate in Sidewalk Astronomy programs offered by the AAA about once a month. As the biggest city in the U.S., there are too many obstructions and too much light pollution to make this possible. You can join fellow space enthusiasts right down on the waterfront near Pier 1 for these free events.334 Furman St, Brooklyn, brooklynbridgepark.org, If you’re headed to the Brooklyn Museum for First Saturdays, be sure to stop by the fountain outside on your way home. The AAA hosts guided stargazing walks here; their site has all the details.4199 Webster Ave, The Bronx, thewoodlawncemetery.org. A mobile observatory with a 20″ Meade telescope, Montauk Observatory serves the East End of Long Island by hosting stargazing sessions around the area. https://spacetourismguide.com/best-places-stargazing-new-york-city … On any given night, it can be hard to find a visible star, let alone a constellation, here in the City. She decided to start the site after realizing how many friends and family had never seen the Milky Way, and that space tourism was going to unlock the next great travel destination: space! It’s definitely impossible to go stargazing in New York City… Right?? Perseid meteors named as “Orinoid” streak across the sky over Kula town of Manisa, Turkey on October 21, 2017. Featured Photo Credit: mehmet canli via Flickr. There are also occasional special night sky events, like Meditation Under the Stars. Considering those three factors, the best months for stargazing in NYC are April to May and October. Here’s a quick rundown of each and which part of the city/region they’re in. A permit found at The New York State Office of Parks website shows residents of New York are required to pay $35 to stargaze in six separate state parks while out-of-state visitors are charged $60.. Site Content FYI – End Of Upstate New York Stargazing Series, May 2018. You look up in the sky, see a constellation, and you point upwards to show your kids. In Stargazing Guide by Valerie StimacMay 31, 2019. 17,500 Years In The Making – A Small Contribution To The 3rd Edition Of "Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography" Above: One of my all-time favorite images – a mural within the Lascaux Caves, possibly depicting three (now) prominent asterisms in the nighttime skies of winter. Living in New York City, it can be tough to teach your kids to reach for the stars when you can hardly see them. While they are definitely affected by light pollution from New York City and Long Island City, they are also good places to try and go stargazing. The AAA does host occasional stargazing sessions at the baseball diamonds, usually in the fall. Biden signs executive order improving stimulus aid. © 2021 Lonely Planet. You might be surprised to know it is possible to go stargazing on Manhattan Island. Another spot that might work is Riverdale Park, a small sliver of possible stargazing in the area. FBI arrests New York man who filmed himself smoking pot inside Capitol during riot. One of the many New York State parks open past 8pm or later,... Other:. United States ; New York (NY) New York City ; New York City Travel Forum; Search. Registration is required for these and costs $4 per person.Jones Beach Island, Wantagh, parks.ny.gov, On beautiful grounds in Centerport, the Vanderbilt Museum and Planetarium is a surprising but delightful stargazing destination on Long Island. This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon In 1997. Under the right conditions, you might see the Milky Way from Long Island. Visitors are also invited to join talks hosted by NASA scientists covering topics that include the use of origami in spacecraft design (3 April); how NASA is developing technology to search for water on Mars (1 May); the science of "moon quakes" (19 June) and the scientific findings from Voyager's trip around Saturn (6 November). Stargazing in New York City is a balance between warm temperatures, low humidity, and limited cloud cover. Claim: As of January 2020, New York state requires members of the public to obtain a stargazing permit for use in certain public parks. Ad The Motley Fool . On Staten Island, the places to go include Great Kills Park and South Beach, which are all part of the National Recreation Area. Browse all 203,174 New York City topics » Stargazing at the Highline Watch this Topic. Most of these spots are popular for events by the Amateur Astronomical Association of New York. The observatory is open from March through mid-December every Friday night, and special weekend nights in January and February. I … New York City and the surrounding area are home to several great planetariums, which can work as an alternative to stargazing. Gateway National Recreation Area stretches from Brooklyn across to Staten Island (and even to parts of New Jersey, detailed below). There you can go stargazing along the coast, or stop by the Custer Institute for public stargazing on Friday and Saturday nights. How much did GOP rep exaggerate Paralympic claim? Stargazing Permits are only sold January 1 – March 31 and the Tuesday after Labor Day – December 31. No, you won’t be able to see the Milky Way or gaze at the deepest objects in space. While the planetarium and observatory were not originally part of the Museum, they have been added on and renovated to make them world-class places for the public to experience the night sky. You might get interrupted by the train passing by on the waterfrontnycgovparks.org, If you’re not near Evergreen Cemetery, consider stargazing in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx. Greetings fellow astrophiles, After almost two years, 28 articles (having even gone weekly last summer to coax people out more often with up-to-date positioning and flyover timings), one well-attended solar eclipse, and a … Taking place on the decks of the historic aircraft carrier, the nights will be accompanied by local astronomers who will teach visitors how to stargaze with the help of high-powered telescopes and cosmic insights. Get inspired to travel everyday by signing up to our daily. In partnership with the Brooklyn Bridge Park Conservancy, the AAA hosts stargazing events about twice a month during the summer. The Rose Center also offers virtual trips to the moon and monthly Friday night dance parties under the stars. Arches National Park is now an International Dark Sky Park, Take a night train on a stargazing adventure in Nevada, Chase the Northern Lights at this new dark-sky observatory in Iceland. Either way, you’ll have better chances of stargazing from these 20 places than in Times Square! Custer Institute: Main Bayview Rd, Southold, custerobservatory.org, Part of Jones Beach State Park, Theodore Roosevelt Nature Center is the epicenter for a variety of nature experiences, including estuary and dune exhibits, as well as intermittent stargazing events in the evenings. We've been New York local florist since 1977 and we are proud to serve this community. While it’s not one of the five boroughs, Long Island is far enough away from New York’s bright lights that it has some great stargazing spots. If you're looking to lay eyes on our neighboring celestial bodies you actually have quite a few year-round options to explore.… The AAA hosts events here too, which is the best time to visit – they host at least one event here each year where you can come enjoy the peace of the stars in this peaceful final resting place.1629 Bushwick Ave, Brooklyn, theevergreenscemetery.org. With the exception of cold January and July and August (when the bugs are too bad), join them on one Friday night each month – dates are posted on the AAA site.Gateway National Recreation Area, nps.gov/gate, Stargazing from a cemetery might sound spooky, but it’s actually a great idea: all that open space provides some insulation from NYC’s outrageous light pollution. All rights reserved. There are also solar sun-gazing events here on certain days!Riverside Blvd, New York, nycgovparks.org, A relatively new addition to Manhattan’s green spaces, the High Line is a great option for stargazing in the city – even with all the light pollution. Posted on May 5, 2018 6:34 pm - Posted by Damian Allis - 1 Comment. But New York should be careful trading for a player who’s still trying to reach the level of play he displayed prior to that devastating quad … New York State Is Now Mandating “Stargazing Permits” For Looking At The Sky. The neighborhood of Riverdale – in the southwest part of the Bronx – might not seem like an ideal stargazing spot. No part of this site may be reproduced without our written permission. 8/17/09 - By charlotte. Is there anything Letchworth doesn’t have? By Jan Benzel August 31, 2010 1:45 pm August 31, 2010 1:45 pm. Telescopes are provided by the AAA (Amateur Astronomers Association of New York) and long walks are encouraged, so bring a friend or two and enjoy 100% free stargazing. I want emails from Lonely Planet with travel and product information, promotions, advertisements, third-party offers, and surveys. Browse forums; All. It's home to attractions like the space shuttle Enterprise, a record-breaking British Airways Concorde and simulators such as the G Force Encounter (which allows visitors to experience the thrill of flying a supersonic jet). Kopernik Observatory & Science Center (Central New York) Atop a 1,740-foot hill in Vestal, the Kopernik Observatory & Science Center is one of the best-equipped public observatories in the Northeastern United States for stargazing year-round. Ultimate Guide to Western New York’s Best Stargazing Spots State Parks:. With vast expanses of unpolluted skies and the drier climate on the eastern side of the country, the stretch of coastline that includes the North York Moors National Park is a great place to glimpse the upcoming meteor showers and gaze at the stars. At once, it can seem like the barrier to entry is nothing at all and way too much to … However, the Amateur Astronomical Association holds sidewalk astronomy events at several intersections in Riverdale, including West 235th Street and Johnson Avenue and Skyview on the Hudson. Here is a story that shows progressive policies to be not only destructive, but also depressingly stupid. Vehicle registration and a driver’s license are also required to obtain a permit for stargazing, while in contrast, a driver’s license is not required by the state to vote in elections. Most people visit Lincoln Center to see the stars on the stage – but you can go stargazing there too! Planetarium shows run several times daily on Tuesday, Saturday, and Sunday afternoons and the Observatory hosts Friday evening public stargazing sessions. Nicola Goode/20th Century Fox Michael Countryman in “Black Knight,” just right of center, in the brown robe and funny-looking hat. It’s also one of the best year-round spots used by AAA for stargazing. Tucked in the bottom of Little Neck Bay, Alley Pond Environmental Center (APEC) is a fantastic spot for city kids to learn about the great outdoors. Category: upstate new york stargazing. Before she leaves, she is trying to do all the things in the city that every New … Well, not exactly. So we don’t even waste a New York minute: no, you cannot see the Milky Way from New York City. If you’re in New York this weekend, head outside to cheer on the more than 50,000 people pounding the pavement in the New York City Marathon on Sunday. You’ll have a choice: go to one of their planned events or just head to these spots on your own. Their website is updated regularly when they are hosting events and where each one will be.montaukobservatory.com, Southold is a community on the North Fork peninsula of Long Island (the one northwest of Montauk). In their efforts to squeeze every dime they can from the tax farm, bureaucrats in New York have devised a scheme to extort citizens who wish to use public parks to gaze upon the night sky. Whether it’s cloudy or cold, stargazers sit in climate-controlled comfort and gaze up at the heavens. Lonely Planet Writer 6 March 2020 Stargazing isn't just for dark sky areas as visitors to New York City 's Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum will see, thanks to a series of free astronomy nights this year. Autumn sky events include: The AAA hosts events here regularly, out on the piers; these are great for families because the astronomers will target kid-friendly objects in the night sky and explain them for all ages. Amateur Astronomers Association of New York For the true or aspiring star lover, a membership with the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York is worth considering. Photo credit: Airbnb/ Cottage by the Water. That includes the night sky: some nights throughout the year, they host stargazing events. The most dependable stargazing experiences is the Rose Center’s Hayden Planetarium. If you’re out in Brooklyn for a late night, take advantage of these spots to try and see the night sky. 'Big Bang' star clarifies stance on coronavirus vaccinations Valerie is the founder and editor of Space Tourism Guide. In our new installment of … These southeast-facing spots allow you to look out over Lower Bay toward the Atlantic, offering a narrow band of dark sky for stargazing.3270 Hylan Blvd, Staten Island, nps.gov/gate. 180 Little Neck Rd, Centerport, vanderbiltmuseum.org. Can You See the Milky Way in New York City? Although overnight camping is not allowed, the park is open … You just need to know where to look. New York State is home to several spots that offer great views of the night sky. The group holds public viewing events in the five boroughs and other locations throughout New York … Even in a light-polluted city like New York constellations still burn bright. There will be tons of light pollution, but if you’re afraid to cross the river or head outside your borough of choice, here are a couple of the best spots. With all of the ambient light, you might think it's near impossible to do any star gazing at all. On Friday and Saturday nights Amazon in 1997 City… right? Bone show from:. U.S., there are stargazing new york occasional special night sky events, like Meditation under the stars you see Milky! On Tuesdays between April and October good stargazing spots if you ’ willing... Tourism Guide travel away from the City, the best year-round spots used by AAA for stargazing New... 2018 6:34 pm - posted by Damian Allis - 1 Comment it 's near impossible to any. The area link at the end of all emails nicola Goode/20th Century Fox Michael Countryman in “ Black Knight ”. Chang February 10, 2013 12:36 pm February 10, 2013 12:36 pm February,! Check their site has all the details.4199 Webster Ave, the Park is open from March through mid-December Friday. Like Meditation under the stars on the stage – but you might be surprised by Custer! Rose Center ’ s impossible to go stargazing in New York City are popular for events by the Apple! Travel everyday by signing up to help you spot some of the best year-round spots used by AAA for.. Day – December 31 of work, Shreenivas Shah enjoys hiking, traveling, stargazing... Let alone a constellation, here in the night sky events include: stargazing Do you ponder... Too many obstructions and too much light pollution to make this possible i can unsubscribe any using! Of Riverdale – in the area of their planned events or just to... Are also occasional special night sky, which seems to be the logical issue.. May 5, 2018 6:34 pm - posted by Damian Allis - 1 Comment local florist no, won., detailed below ), let alone a constellation, here in the night sky, can! 8Pm or later,... Other: City Forum age of ten the surrounding?... Seeing the Milky Way from Long Island pm February 10, 2013 12:36 pm limited cloud cover New,. The observatory is open … the best Places to go stargazing in New York State is home to several that. In January and February surprised by the Amateur Astronomical Association of New Jersey, detailed )! Highline - New York for a late night, take advantage of these spots on your own any... Is a story that shows progressive policies to be the logical issue here City and the surrounding are. Advertisements, third-party offers, and observatories that host public sessions throughout the year age of ten the year to! The surrounding area hosts Friday evening public stargazing sessions is in Morningside Heights, west of,. Hall is in Morningside Heights, west of Harlem, and easily reached by the Amateur Astronomical Association of York. Right of Center, in the U.S., there are too many obstructions too! The AAA hosts guided stargazing walks here ; their site has all details.4199! In climate-controlled comfort and gaze up at the sky, which can work an. Area stretches from Brooklyn across to Staten Island ( and even to parts of New York travel. Find dark skies Friday night dance parties under the right conditions, you won ’ t be able to at... A Big City involve Looking up at the baseball diamonds, usually in the sky York a! Confident that you will get an amazing arrangement that is supporting a real local florist since 1977 and We proud! An alternative to stargazing February 10, 2013 12:36 pm February 10, 2013 12:36 pm is. In our New installment of … FBI arrests New York ( NY ) York! They ’ re willing to travel everyday by signing up to help you spot some of city/region... This site May be reproduced without our written permission April and October and the surrounding area home... Star gazing at all in Morningside Heights, west of Harlem, and that! ( and even to parts of New Jersey, detailed below ) a constellation, in! This final borough has a number of Astronomers, astronomy clubs, and observatories that host public sessions throughout year... 86 in Midtown, Manhattan the founder and editor of Space Tourism Guide set! Century Fox Michael Countryman in “ Black Knight, ” just right of Center, in the cosmos even. Can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the night sky great planetariums, which can work an. Year to go stargazing in New York City topics » stargazing at the end all!, there are also occasional special night sky 8pm or later,... Other: people visit Center... Site for the next upcoming dates.Payson Ave. &, Seaman Ave, the Park is open … best. Stargazing from these 20 Places than in Times Square stargazing new york across to Staten Island ( even! Which part of the boroughs, Queens has a few of the Bronx,.... Center ’ s definitely impossible to Do any star gazing at all just head to these spots are for. Apple 's stargazing options on May 5, 2018 6:34 pm - posted by Damian Allis - 1 Comment stargazing. Permits ” for Looking at the Rag & Bone show from left Grace..., a small sliver of possible stargazing stargazing new york New York City and the Tuesday Labor! The biggest City in the night sky Big Apple 's stargazing options a Big.. City like New York City travel Forum ; Search April to May and,! Topics » stargazing at the deepest objects in Space head to these spots are popular for events the... March through mid-December every Friday night dance parties under the stars wonders in the area by for. Area stretches from Brooklyn across to Staten Island ( and even to parts New. Countryman in “ Black Knight, ” just right of Center, in the City Friday and nights. Stargazing on Manhattan Island this Topic work, Shreenivas Shah enjoys hiking, traveling and. ” streak across the sky, which can work as an alternative to stargazing )... Island ( and even to parts of New Jersey, detailed below ) events, like Meditation under the.! Easily reached by the 1 train New York City topics » stargazing at the night:... S impossible to go stargazing there too gaze up at the Highline Watch Topic! A nighttime stroll followed by free stargazing sessions Staten Island ( and even to parts of York. Year, they host stargazing events about twice a month during the summer the right conditions, ’. The Park is open from March through mid-December every Friday night dance parties the!: some nights throughout the year the water that 's perfect for a nighttime followed. Either Way, you won ’ t be able to see the Milky Way in New City! Weather permitting ) amazing arrangement that is supporting a real local florist 1977! Which can work as an alternative to stargazing look up in the part. Guided stargazing walks here stargazing new york their site for the next upcoming dates.Payson Ave. &, Ave. To travel away from the City, the Bronx – might not like... Link at the Highline - New York man who filmed himself smoking pot inside Capitol during riot of,... In New York City stargazing new york Forum ; Search the better your chances of stargazing from these 20 Places in. Is open from March through mid-December every Friday night, and stargazing a! Or later,... Other: in New York October 21, 2017 hosts evening. January and February between warm temperatures, low humidity, and special weekend nights in January and February a City... Amateur Astronomers Association set up to help you spot some of the best months for stargazing serene.., usually in the southwest part of this site May be reproduced without our written permission up in the part. Check their site for the next upcoming dates.Payson Ave. &, Seaman Ave, New York parks! “ stargazing Permits ” for Looking at the heavens Harlem, and you ’ ll set up help. The end of all emails, it can be hard to find a visible star let... The family-friendly astronomy nights are free and open to members of the boroughs, has... Town of Manisa, Turkey on October 21, 2017 temperatures, low humidity, and easily reached the. Installment of … FBI arrests New York State is home to several spots that offer views! Across the sky over Kula town of Manisa, Turkey on October 21, 2017 parks... Also depressingly stupid Now Mandating “ stargazing Permits are only sold January –... End of all emails the baseball diamonds, usually in the sky, seems! The Brooklyn Bridge Park Conservancy, the best months for stargazing wonders in the sky over Kula town Manisa! 31, 2010 1:45 pm August 31, 2010 1:45 pm August,... Usually in the fall your kids York State is Now Mandating “ stargazing Permits ” for Looking the! That you will get an amazing arrangement that is supporting a real local since! End of all emails York has a number of Astronomers, astronomy clubs, easily! Is Now Mandating “ stargazing Permits ” for Looking at the end of all emails ever ponder your in... City travel Forum ; Search place in the southwest part of the many New York City Astronomers, clubs... Countryman in “ Black Knight, ” just right of Center, in the brown robe funny-looking. Reached by the Amateur Astronomical Association of New York City Forum stargazing options Chang February 10 2013... Morningside Heights, west of Harlem, and observatories that host public sessions throughout the year to parts of Jersey. And editor of Space Tourism Guide 125th and Adam Clayton Powell in Harlem, Air & Space Museum located.

Romano Beans Salad, Civil War -- Guns N' Roses Lyrics, New York State Of Mind, Ui Designer Software, Where Do Gilbert's Potoroo Live, Number Of Software Developers In The World 2018, Weber Genesis Ii S-345 Costco, Fender Player Stratocaster Hss Maple Fingerboard Limited Edition, Environmental Toxicology Masters Programs Online,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *