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This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.[165]. The Macedonians were demoralized by Philip's death and were subsequently defeated near Magnesia by the Achaemenids under the command of the mercenary Memnon of Rhodes. [165] The recent discovery of an enormous tomb in northern Greece, at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander the Great[166] has given rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the burial place of Alexander. [37], At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. He ruled over a vast empire, having defeated the persians, the egyptians and others in the region. Alexander was welcomed by the Egyptians as a liberator and took the country without a battle. One Greek king, Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and was immortalized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. [254][256][257] The Yavanajataka (lit. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days. [60] The one exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in the battle of Megalopolis. [144] Another theory is that his successors wilfully or erroneously misheard "tôi Kraterôi"—"to Craterus", the general leading his Macedonian troops home and newly entrusted with the regency of Macedonia. [137], Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. [12], In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatra's murder, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive. [181] Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexander's will to his troops.[60]. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. Basil was born a simple peasant in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia; he rose in the Imperial Court, and usurped the imperial throne from Emperor Michael III (r. 842-867). [16] Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers, many surviving into the 21st century. This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians.The Macedonian army was unable to capture the city, which was a strategic coastal base on the Mediterranean Sea, through conventional means because it was on an island and had walls right up to the sea.Alexander responded to this problem by first blockading and … [171][172][173] In addition, Leosthenes, also, likened the anarchy between the generals, after Alexander's death, to the blinded Cyclops "who after he had lost his eye went feeling and groping about with his hands before him, not knowing where to lay them". He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara (a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan), to come to him and submit to his authority. [280] In medieval India, Turkic and Afghan sovereigns from the Iranian-cultured region of Central Asia brought positive cultural connotations of Alexander to the Indian subcontinent, resulting in the efflorescence of Sikandernameh (Alexander Romances) written by Indo-Persian poets such as Amir Khusrow and the prominence of Alexander the Great as a popular subject in Mughal-era Persian miniatures. [261], Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.[262]. He also received news of a Thracian uprising. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. It was a wide, flat valley that, unlike Issus, would allow the Persians to take full advantage of their lopsided numbers, an estimated 250,000 Persian troops facing off against Alexander’s 50,000. [271], Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. His son and successor, Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign. [125] This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests. [164], While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. Anaximenes, also accompanied him on his campaigns. The earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus (mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian (1st to 2nd century AD), the biographer Plutarch (1st to 2nd century AD), and finally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th century. [59] This was due to use of terrain, phalanx and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and the fierce loyalty of his troops. [70] At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander "undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia". Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming. [202], Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several revolts. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. [80] He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert. [240][241] An inscription from the temple, now housed in the British Museum, declares: "King Alexander dedicated [this temple] to Athena Polias. [62][64], In 336 BC Philip II had already sent Parmenion, with Amyntas, Andromenes and Attalus, and an army of 10,000 men into Anatolia to make preparations for an invasion to free the Greeks living on the western coast and islands from Achaemenid rule. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. Knowing he would be outmatched in manpower, Alexander relied on speed and distraction. [106] The cities' locations reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions. [261] Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency), but also iracundia (anger) and cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for glory). [263] In addition, Pliny the Elder writes about this unsuccessful plan adding that the distance was 12 kilometres (7 1⁄2 mi), and the purpose was to cut a canal through the isthmus, so as to connect the Caystrian and Hermaean bays. The Persians, fearing a night attack, remained in ready formation all night, anxiously awaiting a charge that never came. Immediately after Alexander was made king, Thebes rose up to challenge his authority—a big mistake. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. [190], Historian and Egyptologist Joann Fletcher has said that the Alexander had blond hair. [150] However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of Alexander, Leo Schep from the New Zealand National Poisons Centre proposed that the plant white hellebore (Veratrum album), which was known in antiquity, may have been used to poison Alexander. [15] Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt. [134], After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. The Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes weren’t thrilled to be under the thumb of “barbarian” kings, particularly since it infringed on their democratic ideals. [107], Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages. [42], In the following year, the Persian satrap (governor) of Caria, Pixodarus, offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus. [6][c] He is often ranked among the most influential people in history. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected it. He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis (Beas). Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. [251] On the Silk Road trade routes, Hellenistic culture hybridized with Iranian and Buddhist cultures. [97] As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. [188], The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light.[189]. [58], While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. [177] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating him. 276 BCE: Alexander IV takes the throne and starts the Macedonian Dynasty. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. [175][199] His unique abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death—only Alexander had the ability to do so. Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus, and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns. The Alexander Romance, in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek. [b] At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Beas River. [20], During his youth, Alexander was also acquainted with Persian exiles at the Macedonian court, who received the protection of Philip II for several years as they opposed Artaxerxes III. By N. G. L. Hammond, F. W. Walbank, p. xl, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Warfare, J, Woronoff & I. Spence, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, ", Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic, Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia, Personal relationships of Alexander the Great, List of cities founded by Alexander the Great, Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources, "Guardian on Time Magazine's 100 personalities of all time", Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, § m6, Advice to Young Men on Greek Literature, Basil of Caesarea, § 8, The Anabasis of Alexander/Book II/Chapter XIV/Darius's Letter, and Alexander's Reply – Arrian, contemporary Babylonian account of the battle of Gaugamela, Philostratus the Elder, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, § 2.12, "NZ scientist's detective work may reveal how Alexander died", "Was the death of Alexander the Great due to poisoning? The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. But he never made it home. After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Raoxshna in Old Iranian) to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. [130], Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa. The ancient Macedonians (among whom Alexander the Great of Macedon is the most famous), spoke in their own Macedonian language, which was very different than the Greek dialects, even though they had similarities in their cultures with the Greeks, as well as with the other nations (Thraceans, Illyrians etc). [60] Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexander's death. His dream of a panhellenic expedition against the Persians was destined to come true by his son Alexander the Great who took his … in the small Kingdom of Macedonia. Macedonia pertains to the Greek History and culture for 4.000 years. After suffering humiliating back-to-back defeats in Greece in the 5th-century B.C., Persia stopped expanding. [175], During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. Alexander III was born in 356 B.C. Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (Beas), refusing to march farther east. [69], From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases. The Persian cavalry and archers were also legendary, as were the scythe chariots which cut down enemy infantry with their razor-sharp wheel hubs. Gone was the shorter “dory” or Greek wooden spear (7 feet long), and in its place was the much longer sarissa, an 18- to 22-foot hunting spear with an iron tip that could puncture heavy armor and impale charging cavalry horses. The Itinerarium Alexandri is a 4th-century Latin Itinerarium which describes Alexander the Great's campaigns. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. After quickly dispatching a small regional army near the town of Granicus, Alexander had his first real test against Darius and his Persian Royal Army near the coastal city of Issus. However, Alexander the Great overshadowed his father, and is one of the better-known men in history. [52] This reply apparently delighted Alexander, who is reported to have said "But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like to be Diogenes. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. [84] Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. [254] For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day Afghanistan,[255] while the Greek concept of a spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. [77], When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. The correct answer is "He is alive and well and rules the world!" It included: Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. Darius, fearing he was about to be overlapped on his left side, sent in 5,000 of his best cavalry. There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip. However, the memorial was found to be dedicated to the dearest friend of Alexander the Great, Hephaestion. [49], Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Alexander the Great Basileus of Macedon … Wikipedia. Bucephalas carried Alexander as far as India. Pausanias writes that Alexander wanted to dig the Mimas mountain (today at the Karaburun area), but he didn't succeed. These macedonian dynasty alexander the great — Stateira 's and Barsine 's — are of dubious legitimacy cunning to finally unseat Persian! ; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece out on Asian! 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